WARNING: This site is deprecated. The current ICG site is at www.icg.port.ac.uk.

Publications by ICG members

100 most recent retrieved from UKADS.

Also see links from individual member pages.

Thomas, Kopp, Markovič, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 490, Issue 1, p.813-831, Using large-scale structure data and a halo model to constrain generalized dark matter
Shirley, Roehlly, Hurley, Buat, Campos Varillas, ..., Papadopoulos, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 490, Issue 1, p.634-656, HELP: a catalogue of 170 million objects, selected at 0.36-4.5 μm, from 1270 deg2 of prime extragalactic fields
Sluse, Rusu, Fassnacht, Sonnenfeld, Richard, ..., Coccato, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 490, Issue 1, p.613-633, H0LiCOW - X. Spectroscopic/imaging survey and galaxy-group identification around the strong gravitational lens system WFI 2033-4723
Samuroff, Blazek, Troxel, MacCrann, Krause, ..., Thomas, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 489, Issue 4, p.5453-5482, Dark Energy Survey Year 1 results: constraints on intrinsic alignments and their colour dependence from galaxy clustering and weak lensing
Lagos, Robotham, Trayford, Tobar, Bravo, ..., Davies, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 489, Issue 3, p.4196-4216, From the far-ultraviolet to the far-infrared - galaxy emission at 0 ≤ z ≤ 10 in the SHARK semi-analytic model
Salvador, Sánchez, Pagul, García-Bellido, Sanchez, ..., Ross, ..., Thomas, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 482, Issue 2, p.1435-1451, Measuring linear and non-linear galaxy bias using counts-in-cells in the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data
Lombriser, et al., 2019, Physics Letters B, Volume 797, article id. 134804., On the cosmological constant problem
Walmsley, Smith, Lintott, Gal, Bamford, ..., Masters, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Advance Access, Galaxy Zoo: Probabilistic Morphology through Bayesian CNNs and Active Learning
Fang, Hamaus, Jain, Pandey, Pollina, ..., Thomas, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Advance Access, Dark Energy Survey Year 1 results: The relationship between mass and light around cosmic voids
Lee, Huff, Ross, Choi, Hirata, ..., Thomas, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 489, Issue 2, p.2887-2906, Producing a BOSS CMASS sample with DES imaging
Varga, DeRose, Gruen, McClintock, Seitz, ..., D'Andrea, ..., Thomas, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 489, Issue 2, p.2511-2524, Dark Energy Survey Year 1 results: validation of weak lensing cluster member contamination estimates from P(z) decomposition
Kauffmann, Maraston, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 489, Issue 2, p.1973-1985, Emission-line properties of the most luminous AGNs in massive galaxies at intermediate redshifts
Ballardini, Matthewson, Maartens, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 489, Issue 2, p.1950-1956, Constraining primordial non-Gaussianity using two galaxy surveys and CMB lensing
Lian, Thomas, Li, Zheng, Maraston, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 489, Issue 1, p.1436-1450, SDSS-IV MaNGA: environmental dependence of gas metallicity gradients in local star-forming galaxies
Morrison, Pieri, Syphers, Kim, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 489, Issue 1, p.868-880, Probing inhomogeneity in the helium ionizing UV background
Buchs, Davis, Gruen, DeRose, Alarcon, ..., Masters, ..., D'Andrea, ..., Thomas, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 489, Issue 1, p.820-841, Phenotypic redshifts with self-organizing maps: A novel method to characterize redshift distributions of source galaxies for weak lensing
Cunnington, Wolz, Pourtsidou, Bacon, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 488, Issue 4, p.5452-5472, Impact of foregrounds on H I intensity mapping cross-correlations with optical surveys
Cuomo, Corsini, Aguerri, Debattista, Coccato, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 488, Issue 4, p.4972-4983, Evidence of a fast bar in the weakly-interacting galaxy NGC 4264 with MUSE
Costanzi, Rozo, Simet, Zhang, Evrard, ..., Thomas, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 488, Issue 4, p.4779-4800, Methods for cluster cosmology and application to the SDSS in preparation for DES Year 1 release
Bose, Koyama, Winther, et al., 2019, Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Issue 10, article id. 021 (2019)., Assessing non-linear models for galaxy clustering III: theoretical accuracy for stage IV surveys
Obuljen, Dalal, Percival, et al., 2019, Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Issue 10, article id. 020 (2019)., Anisotropic halo assembly bias and redshift-space distortions
Dalang, Lombriser, et al., 2019, Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Issue 10, article id. 013 (2019)., Limitations on Standard Sirens tests of gravity from screening
Calcagni, Kuroyanagi, Marsat, Sakellariadou, Tamanini, ..., Tasinato, et al., 2019, Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Issue 10, article id. 012 (2019)., Quantum gravity and gravitational-wave astronomy
Shajib, Birrer, Treu, Agnello, Buckley-Geer, ..., Thomas, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1910.06306, STRIDES: A 3.9 per cent measurement of the Hubble constant from the strong lens system DES J0408-5354
Alam, Peacock, Kraljic, Ross, Comparat, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1910.05095, Multi-tracer extension of the halo model: probing quenching and conformity in eBOSS
Sickafoose, Bosh, Emery, Person, Zuluaga, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1910.05029, Characterization of material around the centaur (2060) Chiron from a visible and near-infrared stellar occultation in 2011
Wang, Luo, Chen, Bai, Chen, ..., Zhao, ..., Zhao, et al., 2019, The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Volume 244, Issue 2, article id. 27, 9 pp. (2019)., Properties of Radial Velocities Measurement Based on LAMOST-II Medium-resolution Spectroscopic Observations
Yan, Chen, Lazarz, Bizyaev, Maraston, ..., Thomas, ..., Zhao, ..., Zhao, et al., 2019, The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 883, Issue 2, article id. 175, 26 pp. (2019)., SDSS-IV MaStar: A Large and Comprehensive Empirical Stellar Spectral Library—First Release
Abbott, Abbott, Abbott, Abraham, Acernese, ..., Bacon, ..., Green, ..., Green, ..., Gupta, ..., Gupta, ..., Gupta, ..., Pace, ..., Ross, ..., Thomas, ..., Thomas, ..., Zhao, ..., Zhao, et al., 2019, The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 883, Issue 2, article id. 149, 10 pp. (2019)., Search for Eccentric Binary Black Hole Mergers with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo during Their First and Second Observing Runs
Belfiore, Westfall, Schaefer, Cappellari, Ji, ..., Thomas, et al., 2019, The Astronomical Journal, Volume 158, Issue 4, article id. 160, 28 pp. (2019)., The Data Analysis Pipeline for the SDSS-IV MaNGA IFU Galaxy Survey: Emission-line Modeling
Zhang, Zhao, Yang, Wang, Zuo, et al., 2019, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Volume 131, Issue 1003, pp. 094202 (2019)., 938,720 Giants from LAMOST I: Determination of Stellar Parameters and α, C, N Abundances with Deep Learning
Farahi, Chen, Evrard, Hollowood, Wilkinson, ..., Thomas, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Advance Access, Mass Variance from Archival X-ray Properties of Dark Energy Survey Year-1 Galaxy Clusters
Davis, Hinton, Howlett, Calcino, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Advance Access, Can redshift errors bias measurements of the Hubble Constant?
Thomas, McCallum, Brown, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Advance Access, Controlling systematics in ground-based CMB surveys with partial boresight rotation
Fraser-McKelvie, Merrifield, Aragón-Salamanca, Peterken, Masters, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters, Volume 488, Issue 1, p.L6-L11, SDSS-IV MaNGA: stellar population gradients within barred galaxies
Gruen, Zhang, Palmese, Yanny, Busti, ..., Thomas, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 488, Issue 3, p.4389-4399, Dark Energy Survey Year 1 results: the effect of intracluster light on photometric redshifts for weak gravitational lensing
Andrianomena, Bonvin, Bacon, Bull, Clarkson, ..., Maartens, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 488, Issue 3, p.3759-3771, Testing general relativity with the Doppler magnification effect
Martinelli, Hogg, Peirone, Bruni, Wands, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 488, Issue 3, p.3423-3438, Constraints on the interacting vacuum-geodesic CDM scenario
Masters, Stark, Pace, Phipps, Rujopakarn, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 488, Issue 3, p.3396-3405, H I-MaNGA: H I follow-up for the MaNGA survey
Cataneo, Lombriser, Heymans, Mead, Barreira, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 488, Issue 2, p.2121-2142, On the road to percent accuracy: non-linear reaction of the matter power spectrum to dark energy and modified gravity
Klein, Grandis, Mohr, Paulus, Abbott, ..., D'Andrea, ..., Thomas, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 488, Issue 1, p.739-769, A new RASS galaxy cluster catalogue with low contamination extending to z ˜ 1 in the DES overlap region
Zhang, Miller, Rooney, Bermeo, Romer, ..., Wilcox, ..., Bacon, ..., Nichol, ..., D'Andrea, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 488, Issue 1, p.1-17, Galaxies in X-ray selected clusters and groups in Dark Energy Survey data - II. Hierarchical Bayesian modelling of the red-sequence galaxy luminosity function
Lombriser, et al., 2019, Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Issue 09, article id. 065 (2019)., Late-time acceleration by a residual cosmological constant from sequestering vacuum energy in ultimate collapsed structures
Pace, Schimd, Mota, Del Popolo, et al., 2019, Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Issue 09, article id. 060 (2019)., Halo collapse: virialization by shear and rotation in dynamical dark-energy models. Effects on weak-lensing peaks
Özsoy, Mylova, Parameswaran, Powell, Tasinato, et al., 2019, Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Issue 09, article id. 036 (2019)., Squeezed tensor non-Gaussianity in non-attractor inflation
Albers, Fidler, Lesgourgues, Schöneberg, Torrado, et al., 2019, Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Issue 09, article id. 028 (2019)., CosmicNet. Part I. Physics-driven implementation of neural networks within Einstein-Boltzmann Solvers
Adamek, Fidler, et al., 2019, Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Issue 09, article id. 026 (2019)., The large-scale general-relativistic correction for Newtonian mocks
Bengaly, Maartens, Randriamiarinarivo, Baloyi, et al., 2019, Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Issue 09, article id. 025 (2019)., Testing the cosmological principle in the radio sky
Pace, Battye, Bolliet, Trinh, et al., 2019, Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Issue 09, article id. 018 (2019)., Dark sector evolution in Horndeski models
Castorina, Hand, Seljak, Beutler, Chuang, ..., Zhao, ..., Percival, ..., Ross, ..., Zhao, et al., 2019, Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Issue 09, article id. 010 (2019)., Redshift-weighted constraints on primordial non-Gaussianity from the clustering of the eBOSS DR14 quasars in Fourier space
Bartolo, Bertacca, De Luca, Franciolini, Matarrese, ..., Tasinato, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1909.12619, Gravitational Wave Anisotropies from Primordial Black Holes
Pan, Obreschkow, Howlett, Lagos, Elahi, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1909.12069, Multi-wavelength consensus of large-scale linear bias
D'Amico, Gleyzes, Kokron, Markovic, Senatore, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1909.05271, The Cosmological Analysis of the SDSS/BOSS data from the Effective Field Theory of Large-Scale Structure
Gargiulo, Cucciati, Garilli, Scodeggio, Bolzonella, ..., Tojeiro, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1909.05094, The VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey (VIPERS) -- Environment-size relation of massive passive galaxies at 0.5 < z < 0.8
Bose, Byun, Lacasa, Moradinezhad Dizgah, Lombriser, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1909.02504, Modelling the non-linear bispectrum in modified gravity
Germán, Hidalgo, Linares Cedeño, Montiel, Vázquez, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1909.02019, A simple supergravity model of inflation constrained with Planck 2018 data
Anderson, Appourchaux, Auchère, Aznar Cuadrado, Barbay, ..., Burton, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1909.01183, The Solar Orbiter SPICE instrument -- An extreme UV imaging spectrometer
Marshall, Hansen, Simon, Li, Bernstein, ..., Pace, et al., 2019, The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 882, Issue 2, article id. 177, 12 pp. (2019)., Chemical Abundance Analysis of Tucana III, the Second r-process Enhanced Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxy
Battisti, da Cunha, Grasha, Salvato, Daddi, ..., Davies, et al., 2019, The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 882, Issue 1, article id. 61, 21 pp. (2019)., MAGPHYS+photo-z: Constraining the Physical Properties of Galaxies with Unknown Redshifts
Ivanov, Coccato, Neeser, Selman, Pizzella, et al., 2019, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Volume 629, id.A100, 18 pp., MUSE library of stellar spectra
Blomqvist, du Mas des Bourboux, Busca, de Sainte Agathe, Rich, ..., Percival, ..., Pieri, et al., 2019, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Volume 629, id.A86, 18 pp., Baryon acoustic oscillations from the cross-correlation of Lyα absorption and quasars in eBOSS DR14
de Sainte Agathe, Balland, du Mas des Bourboux, Busca, Blomqvist, ..., Pieri, ..., Percival, et al., 2019, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Volume 629, id.A85, 20 pp., Baryon acoustic oscillations at z = 2.34 from the correlations of Lyα absorption in eBOSS DR14
Kennedy, Lombriser, Taylor, et al., 2019, Physical Review D, Volume 100, Issue 4, id.044034, Screening and degenerate kinetic self-acceleration from the nonlinear freedom of reconstructed Horndeski theories
Omori, Baxter, Chang, Kirk, Alarcon, ..., Thomas, et al., 2019, Physical Review D, Volume 100, Issue 4, id.043517, Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Cross-correlation between Dark Energy Survey Y1 galaxy weak lensing and South Pole Telescope+P l a n c k CMB weak lensing
Omori, Giannantonio, Porredon, Baxter, Chang, ..., Ross, ..., Thomas, et al., 2019, Physical Review D, Volume 100, Issue 4, id.043501, Dark Energy Survey Year 1 Results: Tomographic cross-correlations between Dark Energy Survey galaxies and CMB lensing from South Pole Telescope +Planck
Qin, Howlett, Staveley-Smith, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 487, Issue 4, p.5235-5247, The redshift-space momentum power spectrum - II. Measuring the growth rate from the combined 2MTF and 6dFGSv surveys
Howlett, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 487, Issue 4, p.5209-5234, The redshift-space momentum power spectrum - I. Optimal estimation from peculiar velocity surveys
Hale, Robotham, Davies, Jarvis, Driver, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 487, Issue 3, p.3971-3989, Radio source extraction with PROFOUND
Camacho, Kokron, Andrade-Oliveira, Rosenfeld, Lima, ..., Ross, ..., D'Andrea, ..., Percival, ..., Thomas, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 487, Issue 3, p.3870-3883, Dark Energy Survey Year 1 results: measurement of the galaxy angular power spectrum
Wright, Lagos, Davies, Power, Trayford, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 487, Issue 3, p.3740-3758, Quenching time-scales of galaxies in the EAGLE simulations
Shin, Adhikari, Baxter, Chang, Jain, ..., Gupta, ..., Thomas, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 487, Issue 2, p.2900-2918, Measurement of the splashback feature around SZ-selected Galaxy clusters with DES, SPT, and ACT
Pollina, Hamaus, Paech, Dolag, Weller, ..., D'Andrea, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 487, Issue 2, p.2836-2852, On the relative bias of void tracers in the Dark Energy Survey
Zhang, Jeltema, Hollowood, Everett, Rozo, ..., Wilkinson, ..., Thomas, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 487, Issue 2, p.2578-2593, Dark Energy Surveyed Year 1 results: calibration of cluster mis-centring in the redMaPPer catalogues
Angus, Smith, Sullivan, Inserra, Wiseman, ..., D'Andrea, ..., Thomas, ..., Nichol, ..., Thomas, ..., Thomas, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 487, Issue 2, p.2215-2241, Superluminous supernovae from the Dark Energy Survey
Hong, Staveley-Smith, Masters, Springob, Macri, ..., Howlett, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 487, Issue 2, p.2061-2069, 2MTF - VII. 2MASS Tully-Fisher survey final data release: distances for 2062 nearby spiral galaxies
Comparat, Merloni, Salvato, Nandra, Boller, ..., Zhao, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 487, Issue 2, p.2005-2029, Active galactic nuclei and their large-scale structure: an eROSITA mock catalogue
Reed, Banerji, Becker, Hewett, Martini, ..., D'Andrea, ..., Thomas, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 487, Issue 2, p.1874-1885, Three new VHS-DES quasars at 6.7 < z < 6.9 and emission line properties at z > 6.5
Masters, Lintott, Hart, Kruk, Smethurst, et al., 2019, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 487, Issue 2, p.1808-1820, Galaxy Zoo: unwinding the winding problem - observations of spiral bulge prominence and arm pitch angles suggest local spiral galaxies are winding
Bower, Moebius, Berger, Farrugia, Keilbach, et al., 2019, Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, Volume 124, Issue 8, pp. 6418-6437, Effect of Rapid Changes of Solar Wind Conditions on the Pickup Ion Velocity Distribution
Linares Cedeño, Montiel, Hidalgo, German, et al., 2019, Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Issue 08, article id. 002 (2019)., Bayesian evidence for α-attractor dark energy models
Lundgren, Tojeiro, Beaton, Blanton, Borissova, ..., Masters, et al., 2019, Boletín de la Asociación Argentina de Astronomía, vol. 61a, p.261-267, Data-driven education and public outreach with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey
Morelli, Costantin, Corsini, Dalla Bontà, Coccato, et al., 2019, Boletín de la Asociación Argentina de Astronomía, vol. 61a, p.184-185, Stellar populations in bulges
Wang, Dickinson, Hillenbrand, Robberto, Armus, ..., Samushia, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1909.00070, ATLAS Probe: Breakthrough Science of Galaxy Evolution, Cosmology, Milky Way, and the Solar System
Baker, Baker, Carbone, Congedo, Contaldi, ..., Tasinato, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1908.11410, High angular resolution gravitational wave astronomy
Siewert, Hale, Bhardwaj, Biermann, Bacon, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1908.10309, One- and Two-point Source Statistics from the LOFAR Two-metre Sky Survey First Data Release
Fuentes, Hidalgo, Malik, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1908.08400, Galaxy number counts at second order: an independent approach
Fraser-McKelvie, Merrifield, Aragón-Salamanca, Masters, the MaNGA Survey Team, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1908.08350, Properties of barred galaxies in the MaNGA galaxy survey
Hanany, Alvarez, Artis, Ashton, Aumont, ..., Green, ..., Pogosian, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1908.07495, PICO: Probe of Inflation and Cosmic Origins
The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, the Virgo Collaboration, Abbott, Abbott, Abbott, ..., Bacon, ..., Green, ..., Green, ..., Gupta, ..., Gupta, ..., Gupta, ..., Pace, ..., Ross, ..., Thomas, ..., Thomas, ..., Zhao, ..., Zhao, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1908.06060, A gravitational-wave measurement of the Hubble constant following the second observing run of Advanced LIGO and Virgo
Favole, Gonzalez-Perez, Orsi, Stoppacher, Comparat, ..., Maraston, ..., Thomas, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1908.05626, [OII] emitters in MultiDark-Galaxies and DEEP2
Bengaly, Clarkson, Maartens, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1908.04619, The Hubble constant tension with next generation galaxy surveys
Euclid Collaboration, Barnett, Warren, Mortlock, Cuby, ..., Percival, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1908.04310, Euclid preparation: V. Predicted yield of redshift 7
Baker, Barreira, Desmond, Ferreira, Jain, ..., Koyama, ..., Lombriser, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1908.03430, The Novel Probes Project -- Tests of Gravity on Astrophysical Scales
The LIGO Scientific Collaboration, the Virgo Collaboration, Abbott, Abbott, Abbott, ..., Bacon, ..., Green, ..., Green, ..., Gupta, ..., Gupta, ..., Gupta, ..., Pace, ..., Ross, ..., Thomas, ..., Thomas, ..., Zhao, ..., Zhao, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1908.01012, Model comparison from LIGO-Virgo data on GW170817's binary components and consequences for the merger remnant
Bartolo, Bertacca, Matarrese, Peloso, Ricciardone, ..., Tasinato, et al., 2019, eprint arXiv:1908.00527, Anisotropies and non-Gaussianity of the Cosmological Gravitational Wave Background